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What to Expect: Diagnosing Bone Cancer in Dogs and Cats

When we first hear that our dog might have bone cancer, we tend to beat ourselves up and wonder “how did we miss it?” You may be wondering what to expect with bone cancer in dogs and cats now.

First, forgive yourself; the symptoms aren’t always easily noticed.

What to Expect

Dog Bone Cancer Warning Signs

Sometimes bone cancer makes a sudden appearance as a lump in the leg, or in worst case scenario, as a pathologic fracture.

But in most dogs, bone cancer shows up slowly, often over a few months. A normally energetic dog may begin fatiguing after walking or playing. Some dogs will grumble when touched in a certain spot. A few dogs lose their appetite.

In older dogs, these symptoms are often mistaken for arthritis and in younger dogs, muscle sprains. Many vets opt to take the least scary (and most cost-effective) route to a diagnosis before even mentioning “bone cancer.” The dog is usually put on pain relief medicines to see if the problem goes away. Usually another round of tests aren’t ordered until it becomes clear the medicines aren’t helping.

Diagnosis: What to Expect with Bone Cancer in Dogs and Cats

One of the first steps in diagnosing bone cancer is for your veterinarian to perform a complete physical exam, blood tests and x-rays. “In most cases, bone cancer can be diagnosed with an X-ray,” says Tripawd member and long-time supporter Dr. Pam Wiltzius of River Road Animal Hospital in Puyallup, Washington.

In the following video, Dr. Wiltzius explains the process of diagnosing canine bone cancer in dogs:

Learn about amputation and what to expect with Tripawds eBook, “Three Legs & A Spare: A Canine Amputation Handbook.”

dog skeleton

When it comes to diagnosing bone cancer in dogs, Dr. Wiltzius shares these facts…

The most common locations where bone cancer appears are:

In the front legs, normally in the:

  • distal radius (above the wrist joint)
  • proximal humerus (upper arm bone, close to the shoulder blade)

Or, in a dog’s rear legs, in the:

  • Proximal tibia, or
  • Distal femur (right above or below knee cap)

Once your vet takes the radiograph of the suspected area, she may consult with a specialist who can confirm whether or not a bone tumor is growing in the limb. If the bone tumor is abnormal in appearance, a biopsy may need to be taken.


There are two types of biopsies:

Fine Needle Aspirate

According to Dr. Wiltzius, a fine needle aspirate biopsy is fairly easy to perform. The veterinarian will inject a needle into the tumor area that’s seen on the radiograph. Besides performing this biopsy on the leg, this type of biopsy can also be done when tumors are present on other parts of the skeleton, such as the skull or spine. After withdrawing the cells, the sample is sent to the lab and examined for cancer.

The disadvantage of a fine needle aspirate is that it can sometimes give a false-negative reading because the bone tumor may be too hard to reach with the needle.

Bone Biopsies

VCA L.A. Oncology Vet Dept. ChihuahuaWhen a fine needle aspirate gives an inconclusive reading, a veterinarian will recommend a bone marrow biopsy. This is performed using a wider needle instrument that must reach through the cortex (center) of the bone, in order to get a large enough area to sample.

A bone biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, but it is extremely painful, requires recovery time and by taking such a large sample of bone, it can put the dog at risk of a pathological fracture. In most cases, this procedure is bypassed if a dog parent knows they will proceed with amputation no matter what the final diagnosis.

Where you live may play a role in whether or not your vet thinks its worthwhile to perform the bone biopsy procedure. For example, in areas where canine fungal diseases are prevalent (the U.S. Midwest and Southwest), vets may recommend it. This is because fungal infections can look like bone cancer on radiographs and cause similar symptoms. If your vet thinks a fungal disease is the issue, it might make more sense to take a bone biopsy prior to amputation, since fungal infections can be treated and don’t require removing the leg.

Can a Biopsy Determine Survival Time?

Bone cancer biopsies help determine the grade of the cancer, but the grade won’t determine survival time. According to Dr. Wiltzius, if a biopsy shows a high grade bone cancer, that doesn’t necessarily mean that the dog won’t live longer than dog with a low grade bone cancer. And the reverse is true; a dog with a low grade bone cancer might not last as long as a dog with a higher grade.

What does help determine the survival time is determining whether or not the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. If cancer is found in the lymph node, it indicates that the cancer has spread beyond the leg and the dog’s survival time may be shorter than most.

However, according to Dr. Wiltzius, just because there’s cancer in the lymph node doesn’t mean you shouldn’t proceed with amputation. For most dogs who are suitable amputation candidates, the most humane thing that can be done for the dog is to remove the source of the horrible pain they are in as soon as possible and let them live out their days pain-free. Whether chemotherapy is chosen doesn’t mattter at that point; all that matters is that the pain is gone.

Download Tripawds eBook for Fast Dog Amputation Recovery AnswersLearn more about amputation and what to expect with Tripawds downloadable eBook, “Three Legs & A Spare: A Canine Amputation Handbook.”

What About Lung Metastasis?

Most vets will take chest radiographs before amputation. If lung metastasis (cancer growths) aren’t seen in the lungs, it’s a good sign that the cancer hasn’t aggressively spread throughout his body. But even with “clean” radiographs, remember that 90 percent of dogs already have cancer cells in their lungs at the time of surgery – it’s just that the cells are too microscopic to be seen. Sadly, clean lungs at the time of surgery doesn’t necessarily mean that cancer won’t appear there later.

The most import thing to remember about what to expect with bone cancer is that as long as your dog is not showing inward (or outward) signs of cancer, they will have a better chance of living a longer, healthier life and beating the bone cancer odds once the affected limb is removed. If a dog is a good candidate for life on three legs, just because a dog has a high grade tumor doesn’t necessarily mean that amputation is a bad idea.

Many thanks to Dr. Pam Wiltzius for helping us bring this information to the Tripawds community. Stay tuned for more canine bone cancer and amputation surgery information.

Recommended Reading

Tripawds Community’s What to Expect amputation information about cats and dogs.

42 thoughts on “What to Expect: Diagnosing Bone Cancer in Dogs and Cats”

  1. Thank for sharing…my Sasha girl a beautiful Doberman I adopted 8 years ago was just diagnosed…I am beside myself..Your stories have helped me come to terms with it. She’s pain free and still active but I know the inevitable is coming.

    • Bobby we are deeply sorry you got the bad news. We understand how you feel and are so glad you found us. There is hope for better days and a long, happy life. Please join us in the Discussion Forums where we can help you along and you can meet members like Dobemom, Nitro’s human. I know she would love to meet you two. See you there OK?

  2. When Biggz was 3yrs old he was hit by a van that was going 50-55mph. A fire chief saw the whole thing happen,and pretty much saved my dog. The woman in the van didn’t even stop!!! The chief said she was texting on her phone. As he’s helping my dog,another volunteer fighter stopped and ended up taking him 20 miles away to an emergency vet. He (Biggz) couldn’t use his back legs. At that time he weighed 140lbs. Next morning I get a call and I find all of this out. Well,when I took him to our vet a week later,he told me to save $ cause he was thinking of taking his rear left leg. Well,Biggz was telling him in his voice”bull!!!! I’m going to show you”!!!! He was walking that night!!!
    He is a Rott n Lab. He is now 11 yrs old,has used his back left leg like a kickstand but can run n jump like he was normal. Until,2 weeks ago. My HAPPY ALL THE TIME DOG isn’t so happy. The vet thinks its bone cancer. And,happens to be on his left front leg.
    I don’t know what to do. He’s on pain meds n gabapentin. I’m on a fixed income and don’t have a clue how much this is going to cost. They wont take payments….☹
    I’ve had him since he was 4 months old,after I put my 15 yrs old ‘Rock’ to rest.

  3. Hi, my dog was diagnosed with bone cancer 1 month ago she is on pain meds .. would like to know after amputation how much longer did your dog live ? and would you do it again?

    • Jerry loved life on three legs for 2 years, without any IV chemotherapy. You will find many more stories from others in the blogs and forums where some dogs survived much longer. Every dog is different. For the best feedback from others please post in the forums or start here for help finding the many Tripawds resources!

  4. 3 weeks ago my 9 year old Rottie was diagnosed with bone cancer. I’m devastated. The vet said it has already spread throughout his body because of the weight loss. He has his good days and he has his not so good days. Whenever I touch him, he flinches. WHY? Is it painful for him when I touch him. Taking him to an oncologist tomorrow. I think I need an expert to tell me what his quality of life is at this moment. I don’t want him to suffer any longer, but I’m so depressed thinking about losing my boy. I have another furbaby… Max, he is a black lab. How is this going to affect him?

    • I’m so sorry to hear this. We just learned that our 10 1/2 old English Mastiff has bone cacner – in her front leg. We are devastated and I’m just sick to my stomach trying to figure out what is the right path of treatment for her. Be strong for your furbaby. He is lucky to have you.

      • What are you sorry to hear!? Jerry loved life on three legs for two years, without chemotherapy, and this was back in 2007! Besides, it’s all about quality of life now, not quantity. Please listen to our Be More Dog podcast, to learn how to follow your pup’s lead on this journey. And sshhhhhh…she does not know she has cancer!

    • Ida I’m going through the same! Vet is saying she has suspicious Bristol femur cancer in her June leg she has been limping. I’m so lost and confused. Taking her to oncologist on Monday I don’t want to lose my baby girl but I don’t want her to suffer.

  5. My almost 11.5 year old Golden was born a tripawd and has proven that there is very little a tripawd can’t do. She participated in Obedience, Rally-O, Field, Tracking, Scenting, Agility, and also learned Flyball. She has had a breathing condition for over five years now and was just getting over a bout of pneumonia when bone cancer was discovered. It’s been 28 days since the ‘official’ discovery, but I had taken her in a few weeks earlier because she was lame in her hind leg … Our vets conclusion was it (the lameness) was to be expected because she was missing her front limb. This diagnosis didn’t sit well with me so I took her to a physiotherapist who gave use some exercises to work on … When she refused to even attempt to put weight on her back leg, I knew something else was wrong and made another veterinary appointment. It’s so frustrating that all the vets cared about was that they weren’t the ones to miss it. Because she is already missing a limb amputation isn’t seen as feasible and also the fact that the vet felt that it was an aggressive cancer based on the radiograph (although the lungs aren’t showing anything),. We were basically sent home with medication for 28 days and told that we would have to decide to let her go when the pain became too much. I’m sure like everyone else has experienced that initially being told you dog has cancer was a shock, but by the next morning we were researching figuring out how to beat this. The last few days have been the roughest … which is why I landed on this page … I have found so much information on how awful Bone Cancer is and all the statistics, but it’s difficult to find much on signs to look for as your best friend either beats the problem or progresses further. We have found the weather plays a huge role in pain levels, but recently there is fluid accumulating in her leg. The femur goes up and down in size … When it’s small we have hope the cancer cells are dying, but then there is a large mass again. It’s such a confusing thing to be working through with our girl. We hope to beat the ‘Big C’, but we also know there are many things going against us.

    • Sarah I am so sorry to hear that about your pup. I would recommend meeting with an oncologist, there are other options such as radiation therapy that can alleviate the pain and maybe even reduce the tumor, as well as new immunotherapies that can be tried. I hope you find something for her soon. Please keep in touch in our Forums.

  6. My 2yr 9month old red heeler has just been diagnosed with bone cancer, we are devestated, willow is way too young to have cancershe is booked in on Friday to have her back leg amputated! I hope that after surgery she will be pain free and live a normal life with three legs and be her normal self

  7. This is the second time in my life with my boy, Jagen, that I have waited after a limp to bring him to the vet. I’ve had rotties since the 80’s and it seems that I spent more wasted time at vets then not. So in my great wisdom-twice-I waited hoping it’ll work its way out. First cost me a second ligament tear on the opposite leg
    and misery for my boy and now delayed bone cancer diagnosis. If I’d of brought him in sooner…….they are so stoic! He doesn’t act like he’s in pain. I will never, ever do anything like that again. With the bone cancer, he started limping and I thought his nails were the problem. He’s super active and a jumper. No other signs. If I’ve a forever rottie owner like I am, I will now no better. Once he wouldn’t put his foot down and he wasn’t going towards better the answer to get to my vet was clear. So, now I’m posting on the post page for Tripawds. Thank you and also my thoughts are with all of you who are working through this along with my baby boy and I . I’ve learned a lot and we’re finding help during this unusual time. This is a new hiking trail we’re on. He’s with me and I’m sure we’ll experience some pretty interesting and life changing things here too. The Best to Everyone and your Babies. Jagens mom, Sherri

    • Amazing.. I have a Boston Bulldog, had been favoring his left hind leg for the last couple of weeks, thought it just his hips hurting, he is 11. Took him in for an exam and x-rays and they said it is cancer in his lower left back leg. X-rays are at surgeons today and should know if he is a candidate for amputation, baring finding any other signs of the cancer in his system. I keep praying for the best, he is very active, and don’t act like he is any pain at all. Even the vet said he couldn’t believe how much he runs around.

  8. Christine my 12 1/2 year old Golden had her left hind leg amputated due to pain associated with chondrosarcoma only a month ago. I was completely devastated at the prospect but she has done amazingly and it is clear she is comfortable and pain free. She had shown acute signs of pain since mid September and I had been trying to get to the bottom of it. The local vet diagnosed severe arthritis but pain meds weren’t helping ( in fact they distressed her more). I requested a referral to a specialist. In hindsight I believe she had been in considerable pain for longer than I care to think about. I have no regrets. Her eyes are bright and her tail waggy. So blessed to have her with me. Sending best wishes.

  9. My Pippin (12-1/2 y.o. golden) has been ridiculously active, running 6 days a week (a 5K 3x/wk, 1 mile the other 3) and walking daily. I noticed a bit of stiffness in his back legs, but chalked it up to arthritis. He ran and fell on the steps and I thought, “well, he moves fast, and they’re hardwood, so they’re slippery.” Last Saturday, he leapt up onto the bed and missed, and I figured he was just getting old. He was limping a little, but it stopped and my husband took him for a 5K run. The next day the limping was worse, and we figured he’d overdone it. By Tuesday, I’d taken him to the vet because he wasn’t putting any weight on the back foot. I thought he’d pulled a muscle, sprained something, maybe, worst case scenario, he’d torn his ACL. The diagnosis of osteosarcoma threw me for a loop. He’s been pretty good since they gave us painkillers – no runs, obviously – and he hasn’t had any loss of appetite or energy. It’s devastating. The chest x-ray seems to be clean. We’re meeting with an veterinary orthopedic specialist on Thursday. I hate to think of his losing a leg, but I know it’s what’s best.

    • Christine we are sorry to hear about Pippin but glad that at least you guys know what you’re dealing with, that’s a great start. The vet team you’re assembling will be so helpful in this journey. He sounds like he has so much living to do, life on 3 legs will be a breeze for your energetic senior if you decide to go that route. Whichever way you go know that we are here to support you no matter what. Keep us posted, we’ll be sending our best.

  10. Hi i just joined here my 8 yr old Brutus just had his left rear leg removed on tue 10/3/17 he broke it on sunday evening on mon dr said the xrays showed bone cancer im crushed we are hoping it hasnt spread xrays of his lungs were clear and his lymphnodes felt normal. Hes doing well getting around hes my baby and id be list without him im trying to read everything i can on living with 3 legs and what to expect .any advice?

  11. My 9 year old rottweiler was diagnosed 3 days ago, it was the worst day of my life. We noticed Peyton had a lump on her rear leg. We went to the vet thinking, oh it’s just an infection or a cyst since she is an older dog. To our worst fears after the x Ray’s came back the vet just asked us to look at them, we asked is it bad? She replied yes. We asked if it was cancer? She said yes. She as we are looking at the xrays I am just in so much pain I just walk out, and go back to be with Peyton. She came in the room with us and gave us our options, and gave us a 30 day period before the cancer kills her. So we can give her 4 months more of life by amputating her leg, or do chemotherapy that would give her six months more. We decided since she has lived a full life and did not want to put her through all of that, we decided to take her home with medicine and live her life out until either she passes or her quality of life is no longer good and we would have her euthanized. I hope this helps.

    • David we are so sorry about the diagnosis. We know how upsetting it is. And whatever anyone chooses for their animal, as long as it’s made with love and the individual animal in mind, that is the only “right” decision. Your love for Peyton rings true in your choice for palliative care. We hope she has many good days ahead with you. Thank you for sharing your story.

    • I too just found out my baby girl Mi Bella has leg cancer . I have not stopped crying . she is a saint . It is not in her lungs yet and they say her heart looks good . But it is eating her leg bone away and can break all we can do is pray at this point .
      They gave her meds . We ask how long she had but they could not say . At this point I guess all I can do is love her as we make each other so happy I have had her for 6 years we have been one from when she was only 10 weeks old . she is my world .

      • Judy we’re sorry to hear about Bella. Please come join the Discussion Forums where you’ll find lots of folks who have been in your shoes OK? Hope to see you there, and that Bella has many great days ahead.

      • I’m sorry you guys i am still n horrible pain I lost my baby Betty to this evil disease she was 13.7 yrs I miiss her dearly and cry everyday it has been 3 months since her passing and i’m still trying to pick the pieces up. She was given the same prognosis and was high on her femur that would have required a pelvic resection along with amputation. Unfortunately she f a turned her tumor leg 11 days later and I had to say goodnight d bye it was the hardest thing i ever did.

      • Judy how long did your dog live….Im devastated my 10 year old pup has bone cancer in her front elbow….I will not amputate nor do chemo….I will keep her pain free as long as I can … would you email me and tell me your experience? I am heartbroken and dont know what to expect…thank you…

    • my 10-year-old Rottweiler Isabella is going in for x-rays at the end of the week. I’ve been reading everything I can about bone cancer because that is what the vet thinks Isabella is suffering from. Thank you for your post.

      • I’m glad you found this helpful Linda. Best wishes to you and Isabella, please let us know if there’s anything we can do to help you both.

  12. We are going through the post operative dealings now. Our Lucy, a 4 year old German Shepherd, was diagnosed with canine bone cancer and we had the tumorous left rear leg amputated. The gamut of emotions we as humans feel for our beloved dogs is far worse then what our four legged family members feel. For all of us going through this, stay strong..I pray for all going through this .

    • Thanks for sharing your experience, Kurt. Best wishes to you and Lucy. We send many wishes for a speedy recovery and many more good times ahead. Please consider joining us in the Forums so we can follow along with your journey, we’re here to help.

  13. Yes. My Best friend broke her leg 4 days ago and thinking we were going to the animal emergency room to get a cast we actually receive news from the vet that in the x-rays they suspected cancer in her left rear leg.
    We were in shock to hear this news not having any signs of any illness, pain or problems with our 12 year old Huskey.
    We were in denial and called over 4 different doctors back home to confirm what we were hearing. Living in Hawaii, We sometime tend to be 10 years behind the rest of the U.S.
    All these terms and acronyms now being thrown at us was very overwhelming. Being here in Hawaii, also had a draw back of not being able to get results immediately. All our blood work had to be sent to California for examination which took an added 3 days before they would even decide what to do with our dogs fractured leg. Our poor husky was in pain over 4 day before finally getting the results we needed to make a best decision for survival for our Husky. The tests came back showing bone cancer and the doctors would not fix the leg and only wanted to amputate. Once again not prepared to make this decision we had no idea if this was really the right decision. Once again we went and ask for 3 other opinions of our test and all 3 gave us the same response of amputation.
    We just brought Aspen home today and the incision is large and she is resting now at home. We are going to to a physical therapy for 3 legged dogs in two weeks. Now that the surgery is over and my best friend is home I really feel it is the best for a pain free life.
    I am going to opening a blog for other families and owners to help each other while we continue thru our journey with our loving 3 legged best friends.

    • Melinda, Aspen and family, we’re so glad you found us. We’ve had other members in Hawaii over the years. Please come to our Discussion Forums and chime in, we’re here for you and lots of folks can answer your questions there. Can’t wait to see your blog too!

      And also, Aspen’s first rehab appointment could be free if the clinic quaifies. Please see our Tripawds Foundation blog post about free rehab:

      Glad to hear Aspen is home. Let us know what we can do to help make your journey easier.

  14. This is my first comment and I don’t know which forum to comment in.
    Tomorrow morning Jamie will have his left rear leg amputated due to cancer.
    This site has given me hope. Thank you.
    I am gearing up to buy an AST Get-A-Grip Harness. I just purchased the Bella hot & cold Pain Relief pad.
    I understand that the doctors still don’t know which type of cancer Jamie has, whether it’s chondrasarcoma or osteosarcoma. After the amputation they are going to send away a large slice. Plus whole body x-rays and 3d lung & abdomen.
    Does this sound familiar to anyone?


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